Monday, May 09, 2011

Building a computer controlled wireless robot

For a long time, I have been trying to find the cheapest and easiest way to control electronic devices wirelessly using a computer. It can open up a lot of possibilities. For example, you could build a radio controlled relay board, and control it from your computer. You could even control the board with a "small" computer such as an Arduino (or any microcontroller for that matter). If your Arduino has an Ethernet shield, you could use it as a Web server and control your relay board from anywhere in the world (as long as you have access to the Internet of course). There are many things that you could do without creating a mess with wires. I am mainly interested in this because I need a computer controlled wireless robot. A little background -

I have been working on a project at the Mobile Robotics Lab of IISc (Indian Institute of Science), Bangalore, in which I have to design a vision based obstacle avoidance algorithm for robots. What does that mean? Well, I basically have to design a robot that uses nothing but a small camera to identify obstacles in its path. Since image processing and computer vision stuff is usually quite CPU intensive, it is difficult to implement this code on a small robot. Small microcontrollers can't handle that stuff. So, the solution I came up with involves a wireless camera that transmits video to a nearby "big" computer. This big computer runs all the dirty computer vision codes, identifies the obstacles, and then somehow tells the robot how to avoid them. This is where wireless communication comes in.

To create a wireless link, you could rip the guts of a cheap RC car and use its transmitter and receiver to control your robot. That's one technique. I did something similar a few years ago . This time, I wanted to do things a little more elegantly, without destroying an RC car. I found this really inexpensive RF transmitter/receiver pair at a local electronics shop in Bangalore:

They cost only 200 INR (about 4 USD)...both transmitter and receiver. What a steal!

You can also find these online at Sparkfun:

Transmitter -
Receiver -

They cost a little more on Sparkfun, but they're still inexpensive. The ones on Sparkfun operate at 315 Mhz, but the ones I have, operate at 434 Mhz (like this one). I don't think that would make any difference in how you connect them.

To use these cheap RF modules, you could either connect them directly to your microcontroller/computer, or connect them with the help of parallel - serial encoder/decoder ICs.

I used the HT12E (parallel to serial encoder) and the HT12D (serial to parallel decoder) ICs. The HT12E is a 12 bit parallel to serial encoder. Of those 12 bits, 8 bits are the address code, and the remaining 4 bits are data. To send a signal, the address bits on the transmitter and receiver should be the same. It's like a password. You can use a single RF transmitter to control different RF receivers (at the same frequency) by configuring the address bits appropriately. All receivers would have to be set to different addresses. With 8 bits, you can create a total of 256 combinations.

Here's what the serial data coming out of the encoder looks like, in an oscilloscope:

If you look closely, you'll notice that there are 13 peaks (instead of 12). I'm not sure what the first bit is for. (Probably a parity bit?) The 8 bits coming after the first bit make the address, and the last four make the data being sent. You connect your microcontroller's (or computer's) parallel output to the 4 input channels on the encoder. With 4 bits, you can create 16 unique commands. That is enough for my purpose.

For more on how to use these ICs with the Tx/Rx, check out this excellent article -

Here's a flowchart of my system:

I've connected an Arduino to my computer which acts as an interface between the encoder and my computer. Here's the Arduino that I'm using:

It's a ModernDevice BBB Arduino Clone that I received from my friend Tom Boyd. I've been hooked to it ever since I got it! You should definitely get an Arduino if you don't already have one. It's the perfect tool for the programmer who enjoys playing with electronics. And it's also very easy and fun to use!

Tom has some excellent tutorials on electronics and programming on his website that keeps inspiring me! Check out some of his awesome Arduino projects - http://sheepdogguide

The robot I am using is a Microbric Viper robot that I received from Microbric a few years ago. The Microbric Viper comes with an IR module which can be used to communicate with a computer wirelessly. Although I've used it in the past, it's kind of difficult to set up because infrared communication requires line-of-sight. Moreover, the range is quite limited.

I'm not going to get into the details of connecting the encoders/decoders with the RF modules because it is already covered in detail in the article I mentioned earlier. I am however, going to share some difficulties I have faced in using these RF modules.

When I was testing the receiver on a breadboard, I was powering it with an AC to DC adapter. The voltage was fine, but the decoder did not work at all. Why? When I was debugging the circuit with an oscilloscope, I realized that the signal at the encoder side was fine, with 13 distinct peaks. However, when I checked the data at the receiver side, I realized that there was some sort of noise, and the peaks were not distinct. The address bits were too close together and sometimes even merging together. Since the address bits on the decoder side did not match with this noisy data, it rejected it. I figured that this noise could be caused by radio interference noise from the AC to DC adapter. So, I removed it and powered each of them (Tx and Rx) with two AA batteries.

The other thing I noticed is that if you connect the third pin of the RF receiver (which is either marked as "Data" or "CE") to the data-IN pin of the decoder , the circuit won't work. Leave it unconnected.

I'm using a 1/4 wave monopole antenna (6.8 inches) with the RF modules. It's just a single core wire. The range I get is amazing. I think I get about 100-120 ft (through walls), and 1000+ ft outside (line-of-sight)! More than enough for my purpose. When I test it outside, it just keeps working no matter how far I go. So, I don't really know its limit yet!

The Arduino communicates with my computer through a USB to Serial cable. If I want to make the robot move forward, I would send the character '1' to the Arduino. It would recognize this as a command and forward it to the transmitter. I can send four commands to the Arduino - '1', '2', '3' and '4'. On receiving these characters, it sets the appropriate data bits on the encoder and transmits the signal.

Arduino code:

On Windows, I use a C# application to send these commands to the Arduino. On Linux, I just use the terminal. My Arduino shows up as /dev/ttyUSB0. To send the command '1', I write...

echo -n "1" > /dev/ttyUSB0

This makes the robot move forward. For a more interactive session, you can use the screen command:

screen /dev/ttyUSB0 9600

More on this here -

And finally, the thing you were probably waiting for...a video! -

I hope you enjoyed this post. My next step would be to put a wireless camera on this robot and test my obstacle avoidance algorithm. Wish me luck.

I hope the information I've shared helps you build your own radio controlled electronic devices and robots!

So what did you think? I'd love to hear your feedback in the section below.



Anonymous said...

this is some really good stuff. i look forward to your posts and they never fail to impress. thanks for sharing

Anil said...

Good job done Ashish, all the best for your future projects.

Anil Mishra

Will Price said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Will Price said...

Nice post, those transmitters/recievers look interesting, I'll have to pick some up someday!

swantron said...

Nice project. I put together a little proof of concept last week...I was driving a 4x20 LCD screen utilizing my Arduino and Linux box. Our solutions are very similar...I was doing an "echo -n [message] > /dev/ttyUSB0" to push text...pretty slick.

Take a look if you would like

Anonymous said...

Lucky that you are in bangalore, we have no shops like this in delhi.

Would it be possible for you to ship the Rx/Tx modules to delhi?

My email is sarangthestig(@)


Anonymous said...

Lucky that you are in bangalore, we have no shops like this in delhi.

Would it be possible for you to ship the Rx/Tx modules to delhi?

My email is sarangthestig(@)


Ashish Derhgawen said...

@Swantron: Cool project! Our solutions are similar. You gotta love Linux!

@Anonymous: Yes, there are shops in Delhi. Go to Lajpat Rai market (near Red Fort)

Aficionado said...

hi ashish...
could you please post the pcb layouts of RF transmitter and reciever! thanx

Unknown said...

This is really awesome and helpful to many others.Thanks for making this available to everyone.Waiting for your future projects.

Ashish Derhgawen said...

@Aficionado: The transmitter/receiver PCB was available as a kit, and I don't have its layout.

You can create your own layout based on the circuit on this page -

KAKAROT said...
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KAKAROT said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
KAKAROT said...

you're projects are just amazing and innovative. sure would like to learn some stuff from you. even i stay in bangalore.....where do you stay(may be we can meet up some time). and where in bangalore do you get all these stuff?(S.P. road i presume)
Are you a school student or an engg. student?

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franklin said...

Hi man!

Congrats for this work, it's really good!

But I have one question: I tried once do this (serial wireless communication) using a Atmel microcontroller and its serial comunication module (without encoder/decoder) and it didn't work!

Theoretically, it should work, huh?

Do you know the difference between a UART and these encoders?

Did you try do that?

Thanks a lot!

Ashish Derhgawen said...

@franklin: Sorry for taking so long to respond! I had not checked this post for a long time. Anyhow, you said:

"I tried once do this (serial wireless communication) using a Atmel microcontroller and its serial comunication module (without encoder/decoder) and it didn't work!"

I think it should have worked. You don't have to use an encoder/decoder. The encoder is basically just translating the parallel input data to serial (for the transmitter).

Did you check the activity on the receiver side with an oscilloscope?

Anonymous said...

First of all, great post! I had not realised the first 8 bits were the address and the final 4 were data bits. Makes perfect sense now. I noticed that there were 13 peaks while reading the encoders output on an oscilloscope too. My thought is that perhaps the first peak is a wake up call for the receiver.

Thanks for the tutorial.


Unknown said...

Hi Ashish,
its a nice project. By the way your blog posts are great.
I would like to buy the Tx/Rx module and those encode/decoder circuits for one of my projects.Can you tell me where did you buy those in Bangalore? SP road i guess.
If so is there any specific model name you used to buy them?
Thanks for your reply in advance.

cartier said...

So have succeeded in it?

Utkarsh said...

hi ashish!!i'm a big fan of your projects.thanks for posting so many projects and making them so easy!

Ashish Derhgawen said...

@cartier: Yes! The obstacle avoidance robot is working nicely...I'll write a blog post on that soon. Too much work right now. :P

Ashish Derhgawen said...

@elamaraon: Check Om Electronics on SP road.

Brundaban said...

i want to know how to use wireless camera in a mobile robot controlled by computer i read ur article it was awesome plz help me and if u have any program regarding above topic.
if u have that program plz share it in ur blog or just mail me
my email id is
i'll be highly obliged

Ashish said...

I have been looking for a wireless camera but the ones I have found online are quite expensive.
Could you suggest some place I could get one?

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Unknown said...

Thanks for the info Ashish.

Ryan Gibson said...

Hey Ashish,

Great work here. Do you have an email I can grab you on I have a few questions to ask you about your builds.



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Gud work. i'm also doing a similar work as my last year project . It is wireless PC controlled robotic arm. your blog is quite intresting continue your work :)

Kiran said...

Do you know what is the output voltage of the receiver?


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AlbertTeh said...

Good evening there, I am from Malaysia.

I would like to ask about the range for the car to move.

Is it possible to move around a house with just using transmitter and receiver?

Your reply is appreciated.

Ashish Derhgawen said...

@AlbertTehP: It depends on how big your house is. The range I got was about 150 ft line of sight. It worked in my house without any problem.

rahulrk said...

will it work even if i use normal wires like the ones which i use to connect stuff on my breadboard as the antennas?? i've connected everything correctly as per my knowledge but doesnt seem to work.. pls help..

rahulrk said...

and will it work fine if i dont use any switches in the Tx? Just ground it for 0 and connect it to Vcc for +5 volts? This is what i am doing for all the pins D0 to D3 and the TE pin..

bharghav teja said...

hi ashish i have a doubt that whether a wireless robot uses more power or wired one?????

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Anonymous said...

may I know the specification of this project? If I am going to use zigbee will it work? what is the connection of the arduino to pc? could you please send the schematic diagram of this project to may account?thank

Snake said...

Hey I'm looking forward to build this for our Electronic Project in College.. But I have a BIG Question... Where Can I buy this Vehicle Part with 2 Wheels, Motors and the Circuit ???

The Undecided said...

Can we use the same wireless process for laptops as it has an embedded keypad and also does it's parallel port can be connected with an encoder IC
and also how the commands of the keyboard travels to the parallel port..?

Unknown said...

awesome work !!!!!!
can u plz explain the baseboard connections of rf tx&rx.....t link tt u have posted is not responding :(
plz do tis at t earliest.....

Unknown said...

Hi Ashish, I would like to ask if you can design a video circuit for me. Please contact me for more details. Thanks & have a good day.

Unknown said...

one doubt please.....u have mentioned that u have used viper robot kit in this project....we have to use Viper Robot Kit only or we can use any remote control car circuit.

Unknown said...

hello Ashish..the info provided are very useful..could you please provide some info about electronic shop frm wer u bout RF transmitter/receiver and also does this RF transmitter/receiver come with encoder and decoder..Pls do reply..

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Project provides very good information about interfacing adruino to computer.go on and on. all the best

Unknown said...

Hey Ashish.
I'm a 11th standard student interested in designing a similar robot.
Please can you give me a list of all the components you've used?
I'm guessing you bought them from SP Road :P
here's my email id:
really need your help! :)

Calin Dragos said...

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